a.a. = Amino Acids
A/G= Albumin/Globulin ratio
A-a gradient= Alveolar to Arterial Gradient
AAA= Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
AAD= Antibiotic-associated diarrhea
AAO= Alert, awake and oriented
AAPM= American Association of Physics in Medicine
AAS= Acute Abdominal Series
ab, abs= Abdomen or Abdominal
AB= Abortion
ABC= Automatic Brightness Control
ABD= Abdomen
ABE= Acute Bacterial Endocarditis
ABG= Arterial Blood Gas
ABI= Acquired Brain Injury
AC= Alternating Current
AC= Before eating
ACB= Aortocoronary Bypass
ACD= Anemia of Chronic Disease
ACE= Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme
ACL= Anterior Cruciate Ligament
ACLS= Advanced Cardiac Life Support
ACS= Acute Coronary Syndrome
ACTH = Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
AD= Alzheimer’s Disease
ADA= Adenosine Deaminase
ADC= Analog-to-Digital Converter
ADD= Attention Deficit Disorder
ADH= Antidiuretic Hormone
ADHD= Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
ADR= Acute Dystonic Reaction
ADR= Adverse Drug Reaction
AE= Hyperkalemia
AEC= Automatic Exposure Control
AED= Antiepileptic Drug
AED= Automated External Defibrillator
AF= Amniotic Fluid
AF= Atrial Fibrillation or afebrile
AFB= Acid Fast Bacteria
AFP= Alpha-fetoprotein
AGC= Automatic Gain Control
AGN= Acute Glomerulonephritis
AI= Artificial Insemination or Aortic Insufficiency
AIDP= Acute Infectious and Parasitical Diseases
AIDP= Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
AIDP= Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis
AIDS= Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
AIN= Acute Interstitial Nephritis
AKA= Above the Knee Amputation
ALA= Aminolevulinic Acid
ALARA= As Low As Reasonably Achievable.
Alc= Alcohol
ALD= Alcoholic Liver Disease
ALG= Antilymphocytic Globulin
ALI= Acute Lung Injury
ALL= Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
ALP= Alkaline Phosphatase
ALPS= Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome
ALS= Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
ALT= Alanine Transaminase
amb= Ambulate
AMI= Acute Myocardial Infarction
AML= Acute Myeloid Leukemia
AMS= Acute Mountain Sickness
AMU= Atomic mass units
ANA= Anti-nuclear Antibody
ANS= Autonomic Nervous System
AODM= Adult-Onset Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2 Diabetes)
AOM= Acute Otitis Media
AP= Anterio-Posterior
APC= Atrial Premature Contraction
APD= Adult Polycystic Disease
APECED= Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy
APH= Antepartum Hemorrhage
APKD= Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease
APLS= Antiphospholipid Syndrome
APR= Abdominoperineal Resection
APR= Anatomical Programmed Radiography
APS= Autoimmune Polyendocrine/Polyglandular Syndrome
APTT= Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time
AR= Specific Absorption Rate
ARC= AIDS-related Complex
ARDS= Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
ARF= Acute Renal Failure
Arg= Arginine
ARM= Artificial Rupture of Membranes
ARNA= American Radiological Nurses Association
ART= Antiretroviral Therapy
ARVC= Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy
ARVD= Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia
AS= Aortic Stenosis
ASA= Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin)
ASAP= As soon as possible
ASCAD= Arteriosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease
ASCVD= Arteriosclerotic Vascular Disease (Arteriosclerosis)
ASD= Atrial Septal Defect
ASD= Autism Spectrum Disorder
a-Se= Aamorphous Selenium
ASGUS= Atypical Squamous Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance
ASH, ASHD= Arteriosclerotic Heart Disease (Coronary Heart Disease)
a-Si= Amorphous Silicon
ASIS= Anterior Superior Iliac Spine
ASO= Antistreptolysin-O
AST= Aspartate Transaminase
ATN= Acute Tubular Necrosis
ATNR= Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex
ATP= Acute Thrombocytopenic Purpura
ATP= Adenosine triphosphate
ATS= Anti-tetanus Serum
A-V= Arteriovenous
AV= Arteriovenous/Atrioventricular
AVM= Arteriovenous Malformation
A-VO2= Arteriovenous Oxygen
AVR= Aortic Valve Replacement
AXR= Abdominal X-Ray
AZT= Azidothymidine
Ba= Barium
BAC= Blood Alcohol Content
BAL= Blood Alcohol Level
BAL= Bronchoalveolar Lavage
BAO= Basic Acid Output
BAS= Barium Swallow
BAT= Brown Adipose Tissue
BBB L= Left Bundle Branch Block
BBB R= Right Bundle Branch Block
BBB= Bundle Branch Block
BC= Blood Culture
BCAA= Brached Chain Amino Acid
BCC= Basal Cell Carcinoma
BCG= Bacille Calmette-Guerin (Tuberculosis Vaccination)
BCP= Birth Control Pill
BD= Bipolar Disorder
BDD= Body Dysmorphic Disorder
BDI= Beck Depression Inventory
BE= Barium Enema
Be= Beryllium
BEE= Basal Energy Expenditure
BGAT= Blood Glucose Awareness Training
BGL= Blood Glucose Level
bid= Twice a day
BiPAP= Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure
BIR= The British Institute of Radiology
BiVAD= Bilateral Ventricular Assist Device
BK= Bradykinin
BKA= below-the-knee amputation
bld= Blood
BM= Bone Marrow
BM= Bowel Movement
BMC= Bone Mineral Content
BMD= Bone Mineral Density
BMI= Body Mass Index
BMP= Blood Metabolic Profile
BMR= Basal Metabolic Rate
BMT= Bone Marrow Transplant
BNP= Brain Natriuretic Peptide
BOM= Bilateral Otitis Media
BOOP= Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia
BP= Blood Pressure
BPAD= Bipolar Affective Disorder
BPD= Borderline Personality Disorder
BPH= Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
BPM= Beats Per Minute
BPPV= Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
BRBPR= Bright Red Blood Per Rectum
BRBPR= Bright Red Blood Per Rectum
BRCA 1= Breast Cancer 1 (human gene and protein)
BRP= Bathroom Priviledges
BS= Blood Sugar
BS= Breathe Sound, Bowel Sounds
BS= British Standard
BSA= Body Surface Area
BSE= Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
BSL= Blood Sugar Level
BT= Bleeding Time
BTL= Bilateral Tubal Ligation
BTP= Breakthrough pain
BUN= Blood Urea Nitrogen
BVP= Biventricular Vaginosis
BW= Bandwidth
BW= Body Weight
BX= Biopsy
C&S= Culture & Sensitivity
C/kg= Coulomb per Kilogram
C/O= Complaining of
Ca= Calcium
CA= Cancer
CA= Carcinoma
CAA= Crystalline Amino Acids
CABG= Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery
CAD= Coronary Artery Disease
CADASIL= Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy
CAG= Coronary Angiography
CAG= Coronary Artery Graft
CAH= Chronic Active Hepatitis
CAH= Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
cAMP= Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
CAPD= Central Auditory Processing Disorder
CAPD= Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
Caps= Capsule
CAT= Computed Axial Tomography
CAU= Caudal
CBC= Complete Blood Count
CBG= Capillary Blood Gas
CBS= Chronic Brain Syndrome
cc= Cardiac Catheter
CC= Chief Complaint
CCD= Charge Coupled Device
CCF= Congestive Cardiac Failure
CCK= Cholecystokinin
CCR= Cardiocerebral Resuscitation
CCU= Clean Catch Urine
CCU= Coronary Care Unit
CCV= Critical Closing Volume
CD= Compact Disc
CDH= Congenital Dislocated Hip
CDP= Cytosine Diphosphate
CDR= Recordable Compact Disc
CEA= Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Carotid Endarterectomy
CEU= Continuing Education Unit
CF= Cystic Fibrosis
CFS= Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
CGL= Chronic Granulocytic Leukemia
cGMP= Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate
CGN= Chronic Glomerulonephritis
CH= Congenital Hypothyroidism
CHD= Coronary Heart Disease
ChE= Cholinesterase
CHF= Congestive Heart Failure
CHO= Carbohydrate
Chol= Cholesterol
CHT= Congenital Hypothyroidism
CI= Cardiac Index
CICU= Cardiac Intensive Care Unit
CIDP= Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
CINE= C inematographic
Circ= Circumcision
CIS= Carcinoma in situ
CJD= Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
CKD= Chronic Kidney Disease
CKMB= MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase
CLL= Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
CML= Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia/Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
CMML= Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia
CMP= Cytosine Monophosphate
CMS= Chronic Mountain Sickness
CMV= Cyomegalovirus
CN= Cranial Nerves
CNR= Contrast-to-Noise Ratio
CNS= Central Nervous System
CO= Cardiac Output, Carbon Monoxide
CO2= Carbon Dioxide
COAD= Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease
COCP= Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill
COLD= Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
Conj= Conjunctiva
COPD= Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
COX-1= Cyclooxygenase 1
CP= Cerebral Palsy
CP= Chest Pain
CPAP= Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
CPK= Creatine Phosphokinase
CPKMB= Creatine Phosphokinase heart
CPP= Cerebral Perfusion Pressure
CPR= Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
CPT= Current Procedural Terminology
CR= Computed Radiography
CRA= Cranial
CrCl= Creatinine Clearance
CREST= Calcinosis Raynaud Esophagus Sclerosis Teleangiectasiae
CRF= Chronic Renal Failure
CRF= Corticotropin-releasing factor
CRH= Corticotropin-releasing hormone
CRI= Chronic Renal Insufficiency
CRNS= Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist
CRP= C-Reactive Protein
CRT= Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
CRT= Cathode Ray Tube
CsA= Ciclosporin A
C-Section= Cesarean Section
CSF= Cerebrospinal Fluid
CsI= Caesium Iodide
CT= Computed Tomography
CT= Computerized Tomography
CTA= Computed Tomography Angiography
CTDI= Computed Tomography Dose Index
CTP= Cytosine Triphosphate
CTS= Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
CTU= Cancer Treatment Unit
CTX= Ceftriaxone Contractions
Cu= Copper
CV= Cardiovascular
CVA= Cerebrovascular Accident
CVA= Costovertebral Angle
CVAT= CVA tenderness
CVC= Central Venous Catheter
CVC= Chronic Venous Congestion
CVD= Cardiovascular Disease
CVI= Cardiovascular incident
CVID= Common Variable Immunodeficiency
CVP= Central Venous Pressure
CVS= Cardiovascular System
CXR= Chest X-Ray
D & C= Dilation and curettage
d.d. = Differential Diagnosis
D/C= Discharge
D5W= 5% dextrose in water
DAP= Dose Area Product
DAS= Data Acquisition System
DAT= Diet as tolerated
DAT= Direct Antiglobulin Test
DAW= Dispense as written
DBP= Diastolic Blood Pressure
DBS= Deep Brain Stimulation
DBT= Dialectical Behavioral Therapy
DC= Direct Current
DC= Discharge or Discontinue
DCBE= Double Contrast Barium Enema
DCIS= Ductal Carcinoma in situ
DCM= Dilated Cardiomyopathy
DDD= Daily Defined Doses
DDR= Direct Digital Radiography
DDS= Doctor of Dental Surgery
DDx= Differential Diagnosis
DECUB= Decubitis
DES= Diethylstilbestrol
Detox= Detoxification
DEXA= Dual Energy X-ray Absorptionmetry
DH= Department of Health
DHE= Dihydroergotamine
DHEA= Dehydroepiandrosterone
DHEA-S= Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulphate
DHF= Decompensated Heart Failure
DI= Diabetes Insipidus
DIC= Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
DICOM= Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine
DID= Dissociative Identity Disorder
DIP= Distal Interphalangeal Joint
DiPer Te= Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus
Dis= Dislocation
DiTe= Diphtheria Tetanus
DIU= Death in Utero-Stillbirth
DJD= Degenerative Joint Disease (Osteoarthritis)
DKA= Diabetic Ketoacidosis
dl= Deciliter
DLE= Disseminated Lupus Erythematosus
DLP= Dose-Length Product
DM= Diabetes Mellitus
DMD= Doctor of Dental Medicine
DMD= Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
DNA= Deoxyribonucleic acid
DNR= Do not resuscitate
DO= Doctor of Osteopathy
DOA= Dead on Arrival
DOA= Drugs of Abuse
DOB= Date of Birth
DOE= Dyspnea on Exertion
DP= Dorsalis Pedis
DPH= Diphenylhydantoin
DPL= Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage
DPT= Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus-DPT vaccine
DQE= Detective Quantum Efficiency
DSA= Digital Subtraction Angiography
DSM= Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
DT= Delirium Tremens
DT= Diphtheria Tetanus
DTA= Descending Thoracic Aorta
DTP= Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis
DTPA= Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid
DTR= Deep Tendon Reflex
DU= Duodenal Ulcer
DUB= Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
DVD= Digital Video Disc
DVT= Deep Vein Thrombosis
DX= Diagnosis
dz= Disease
E. Coli= Escherichia Coli bacteria
EAA= Essential Amino Acids
EACA= Epsilon-aminocaproic acid
Eb= Electron Binding Energy
EBCT= Electron Beam Computed Tomography
EBL= Estimated blood loss
EBM= Expressed Breast Milk
EBT= Electron beam tomography
EBV= Epstein-Barr Virus
ECF= Extracellular fluid
ECG= Electrocardiogram
ECHO= Echocardiogram
ECMO= Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
ECT= Electroconvulsive Therapy
ED= Ectodermal Dysplasia
ED= Erectile Dysfunction
EDD= Estimated Date of Delivery
EDH= Epidural Hematoma
EDM= Esophageal Doppler Monitor
EDTA= Ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid
EEG= Electroencephalogram
EEX= Electrodiagnosis
EF= Ejection Fraction
EFAD= Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency
EGD= Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
EI= Emotional Intelligence
EKG= Electrocardiogram
ELISA= Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay
EmBx= Endometrial Biopsy
EMF= Endomyocardial Fibrosis
EMG= Electromyography
EMR= Electronic Medical Record
EMU= Early Morning Urine Sample
EMV= Eyes, motor, verbal response
ENT= Ear, Nose and Throat
EOM= extraocular Muscles
EOMI= Extraocular Movements Intact
EPH= Edema Proteinuria Hypertension
EPI= Echo Planar Imaging
EPO= Erythropoietin
EPS= Electrophysiology
EQ= Emotional Intelligence Quotient
ER= Emergency Room
ERCP= Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
ESBL= Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase
ESR= Electron Spin Resonance
ESR= Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
ESRD= End-Stage Renal Disease
ESV= End-systolic Volume
ESWL= Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
ET= Endotracheal
Etiol= Etiology
ETL= Echo Train Length
ETOH= Ethanol
ETS= Endoscopic Thoracic Sympathectomy
ETT= Endotracheal Tube
EUA= Examination under Anesthesia
EUP= Extrauterine Pregnancy
EUS= Endoscopic Ultrasonography
eV= Electron Volt
EVAR= Endovascular Aneurysm Repair
EVF= Erythrocyte Volume Fraction
Exam= Examination
Exp Lap= Exploratory Laparotomy
F/C= Fevers and/or Chills
F= Fahrenheit
FA= Flip Angle
Fab= Fragment Antigen Binding
FAMMM= Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma Syndrome
FAP= Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
FATSAT= Fat Saturation
FB= Foreign Body
FBC= Full Blood Count
FBE= Full Blood Exam
FBG= Fasting Blood Glucose
FBS= Fasting Blood Sugar
FDA= Food and Drug Administration
FDC= Follicular Dendritic Cells
FDD= Focus to Detector Distance
FDIU= Foetal Demise in Utero
FDP= Fibrin Degradation Product
FE= Field Echo
Fe= Iron
fem= Female
FEV= Forced Expiratory Volume
FFA= Free Fatty Acids
FFP= Fresh Frozen Plasma
FFT= Fast Fourier Transform
FHR= Fetal Heart Rate
FHS= Fetal Heart Sound
FHT= Fetal Heart Tones
FHx= Family History
FID= Focus to Isocentre Distance, Free Induction Decay
Flu= Influenza
FMF= Fetal Movements Felt
FMP= First Menstruation Period (Menarche)
fMRI= Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
FNA= Fine Needle Aspiration
FNAB= Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy
FNAC= Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology
FNC= Full Nursing Care
FNH= Focal Nodular Hyperplasia
FOBT= Fecal Occult Blood Test
FOS= Full of Stool
FOV= Field Of View
FPG= Fasting Plasma Glucose
FPR= Fluoroscopy Programmed Radiography
FPS= Frames Per Second
FRC= Functional Residual Capacity
FROM= Full Range of Motion
FSBS= Finger-stick Blood Sugar
FSE= Fast Spin Echo
FSE= Fetal Scalp Electrode
FSH= Follicle-stimulating Hormone
FT= Fourier Transform
FTA= Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody
FTA-ABS= Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption
FTT= Failure to thrive
FU= Follow-up
FUO= Fever of Unknown Origin
FVC= Forced Vital Capacity
FWB= Full Weight Bearing
Fx, #= Fracture

G= Gravidity
G6PD= Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase
GA= General Anaesthesia
GABA= Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
GAD= Generalized Anxiety Disorder
GB= Gallbladder
GBM= Glomerular Basement Membrane
GC= Gonorrhea or Gonococcus
GCA= Giant Cell Arteritis
GCF= Grid Conversion Factor
GCS= Glasgow Coma Scale
Gd= Gadolinium
Gd2O2S= Gadolinium Oxysulphide
GDA= Gastroduodenal Artery
GDLH= Glutamate Dehydrogenase
GDP= Guanosine Diphosphate
GE= Geometric Efficiency, General Electric, Gradient Echo
GERD= Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
GETT= General by Endotracheal Tube
GFR= Glomerular Filtration Rate
GGT= Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase
GH= Growth Hormone
GHFR= Growth Hormone Releasing factor
GI= Gastrointestinal
GI= Glycemic Index
GIFT= Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer
GIST= Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor
GIT= Gastrointestinal Tract
GITS= Gastrointestinal Therapeutic System
GMC= General Medical Condition
GM-CSF= Granulocyte-Monocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor
GMP= Guanosine Monophosphate
GN= Glomerulonephritis (Nephritis)
GnRH= Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
GOAT= Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test
GOD= Glucose Oxidase
Gomer= Get Outta My ER
GORD= Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
GOT= Glutamic-oxalacetic Transaminase
GPT= Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase
gr= Grain
GRAV I= First Pregnancy
GSW= Gun Shot Wound
GTT= Glucose Tolerance Test
GU= Gastric Ulcer
GU= Genitourinary
GVHD= Graft-versus-host disease
GXT= Graded Exercise Tolerance (stress test)
Gy= Gray
Gym= Gymnasium
Gyn= Gynecology
H & E= Hematoxylin and Eosin
H & H= Hemoglobin and Hematocrit
H&M= Hematemesis and Melena
H&P= History and Physical Examination
h.s. = At Bedtime
H/H= Henderson-Hasselbach Equation
h/o= History of
H+= Hydrogen Density
HA, H/A= Headache
HA= Hypertonia Arterialis
HAA= Hepatitis Associated Antigen
HAART= Highly Active Anti-aetroviral Therapy
HACE= High Altitude Cerebral Edema
HAD= HIV-associated dementia
HAE= Hereditary Angioedema
HAPE= High Altitude Pulmonary Edema
HAV= Hepatitis A Virus
HB= Heart Block
Hb= Hemoglobin
HbA= Hemoglobin A
HbA1C= Glycosylated hemoglobin
HbF= Fetal Hemoglobin
HBP= High Blood Pressure
HBsAg= Hepatitis B Surface Antigen
HBV= Hepatitis B Virus
HCC= Hepatocellular Carcinoma
hCG= Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
HCL= Hairy Cell Leukemia
Hct= Hematocrit
HCT= Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
HCTZ= Hydrochlorothiazide
HCV= Hepatitis C Virus
HD= Hodgkin’s Disease
HDL= High-density lipoprotein
HDL-C= High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol
HDU= High Dependancy Unit
HDV= Hepatitis D virus
HEENT= Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, Throat
HELP, HELLP= Hypertension, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelets
Hema= Hematest
HEMA= Hydroxy Ethyl Methacrylate
HES= Hydroxyethyl Starch
HETE= Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid
HEV= Hepatitis E Virus
Hgb= Hemoglobin
HGH= Human Growth Hormone
HGPRTase= Hypoxanthine-guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase
HGV= Hepatitis G Virus
HH= Hiatus Hernia
HHT= Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectisia
HHV= Human Herpesvirus
HI= Homicidal Ideation
Hib= Haemophilus Influenzae B
HIDS= Hyper-IgD Syndrome
HIS= Hospital Information System
HIT= Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia
HIV= Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HJR= Hepatojugular Reflex
HL= Hearing Level
HL= Hepatic Lipase
HL= Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
HLA= Histocompatibility Locus Antigen
HLA= Human Leukocyte Antigen
HLHS= Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
HMD= Hyaline Membrane Disease
HMG-CoA= 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA
HMGR= 3-hydroxy-30methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase
HMS= Hyper-reactive Malarial Splenomegaly
HMSN= Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy
HN= Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase
HND= Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
HNPCC= Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer
HOB= Head of Bed
HOCM= Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy
HONK= Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma
HPA= Hypothalamic-Pituiatary-Adrenal Axis
HPETE= Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid
HPF= High Power Field (Microscopy)
HPI= History of Present Illness
HPL= Human Placental Lactogen
HPOA= Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy
HPV= Human Papillomavirus
HR= Heart Rate
HRT= Hormone Replacement Therapy
H-S= Heel-to-shin test
hs= Hours of Sleep
HSC= Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin
HSG= Hysterosalpingogram
HSM= Hepatosplenomegaly
HSP= Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
HSV= Herpes Simplex Virus
HT, HTN= Hypertension
Ht= Height
HTLV= Human T-lymphotropic Virus
HTPA= Hypothalamic-pitutary-adrenal axis
HTVD= Hypertensive Vascular Disease
HU= Hounsfield Unit
HUS= Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
HVLT= High-velocity Lead Therapy
Hx= History (medical)
Hz= Hertz
I&D= Incision and Drainage
I&O= Inputs and Outputs, Intake and Outputs
i.s.q. = No change
I131= Radioactive Iodine
IA= Intra-arterial
IABP= Intra-aortic Balloon Pump
IAI= Intra-amniotic Infection
IBC= Inflammatory Breast Cancer
IBD= Inflammatory Bowel Disease
IBS= Irritable Bowel Syndrome
IC= Ileocecal
IC= Immune Complex
IC= Immunocompromised
IC= Informed Consent
IC= Intensive Care
IC= Interstitial Cystitis
IC= Intracardiac
ICCU= Intensive Cardiac Care Unit
ICD= Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator
ICD-10= International Classification of Diseases – 10th revision
ICDS= Integrated Child Development Services Program
ICF= Intracellular Fluid
ICG= Impedance Cardiography
ICH= Intracerebral Hemorrhage
ICP= Intracranial Pressure
ICRP= International Commison on Radiological Protection
ICS= Intercostal Space
ICU= Intensive Care Unit
ID= Infectious Disease or Identifying Data or Identification
IDA= Iron Deficiency Anemia
IDC= Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy
IDC= Indwelling Catheter
IDC= Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma
IDDM= Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
IDL= Intermediate Density Lipoprotein
IDP= Infectious Disease Precautions/Process
IF= Immunofluorescence
IFG= Impaired Fasting Glycaemia
Ig= Immunoglobulin
IgA= Immunoglobulin A
IgD= Immunoglobulin D
IgE= Immunoglobulin E
IgG= Immunoglobulin G
IgM= Immunoglobulin M
IGT= Impaired Glucose Tolerance
IHC= Immunohistochemistry
IHD= Ischemic Heart Disease
IHSS= Idiopathic Hypertropic Subaortic Stenosis
II= Image Intensifier
IM= Intramuscular
IM= Intramuscular
IMA= Inferior Mesenteric Artery
IMB= InterMenstrual Bleed
IMI= Intramuscular Injection
IMN= Infectious Mononucleosis
IMS= Irritable Male Syndrome
IMT= Intima-media Thickness
IMV= Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation
Inc= Incomplete
Inf= Injection
INF= Intravenous Nutritional Fluid
INH= Isoniazid
IO= Intraosseous Infusion
IOL= Induction Of Labor
IOP= Intraocular Pressure
IP= Interphalangeal Joint
IPPB= Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing
IPPV= Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation
IPS= Intra-Peritoneal Sounds
IQ= Intelligence Quotient
IR= Inversion Recovery, Interventional Radiology
IRDM= Insulin Resistant Diabetes Mellitus
ISA= Intrinsic Sympathomimetic Activity
ISDN= Isosorbide dinitrate
ISH= Isolated Systolic Hypertension
ISMN= Isosorbide Mononitrate
ISO= International Organization for Standardization
IT= Interthecal
ITP= Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
ITU= Intensive Treatment/Therapy Unit
IU= International Units
IUCD= Intrauterine Contraceptive Device
IUD= Intrauterine Death
IUD= Intrauterine Device
IUFD= Intrauterine Foetal Demise
IUI= Intrauterine Insemination
IUP= Intrauterine Pregnancy
IUS= Intrauterine System
IV= Intravenous
IV= Intravenous
IVC= Inferior Vena Cava
IVC= Intravenous Cholangiogram
IV-DSA= Intravenous Digital Subtraction Angiography
IVDU= Intravenous Drug User
IVF= In vitro fertilization
IVF= Intravenous Fluids
IVP= Intravenous Pyleogram
IVPB= Intravenous Piggyback
IVU= Intravenous Urogram
IVUS= Intravascular Ultrasound
JIA= Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
JMS= Junior Medical Student
JODM= Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Mellitus
JRA= Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
JRCERT= Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology
JVD= Jugular Vein Distension
JVP= Jugular Venous Pressure
K= Potassium
KA= Ketoacidosis
KBr= Potassium Bromide
Kcal= Kilocalorie
KCCT= Kaolin Cephalin Clotting Time
KeV= Kiloelectron Volt
kg= Kilogram
KIV= Keep in View
KLS= Kidney, Liver, Spleen
KOR= Keep Open Rate
KS= Kaposi’s Sarcoma
KSHV= Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated Herpes virus
KUB= Kidneys, Ureters and Bladder
KVO= Keep Vein Open
kVp= Kilovoltage Peak
L&D= Labor and Delivery (Childbirth)
L= Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)
L= Lumbar vertebrae
LA= Left Atrium, Lymphadenopathy
Lab= Laboratory
LABBB= Left Anterior Bundle Branch Block
LAD= Left Anterior Descending-Coronary Artery
LAD= Left Axis Deviation-Electrocardiogram
LAD= Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency
LAD= Lymphadenopathy
LAE= Left Atrial Enlargement
LAHB= Left Anterior Hemiblock
Lam= Laminectomy
LAO= Left Anterior Oblique
Lap= Laparotomy
LAP= Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase
LAR= Low Anterior Resection
LARP= Left-Anterior, Right-Posterior
LAS= Lymphadenopathy Syndrome
LASIK= Laser-Assisted In-Situ Keratomileusis
Lat= Lateral
lb, LB= Pound
LBBB= Left Bundle Branch Block
LBO= Large Bowel Obstruction
LBP= Low Back Pain
Lc of ch= Laxative of choice
LCA= Left Coronary Artery
LCD= Low Contrast Detail, Liquid Crystal Display
LCIS= Lobular Carcinoma in situ
LCM= Lymphocytic Meningitis
LCR= Low Contrast Resolution
LCX= Left Circumflex Artery
LDH= Lactate Dehydrogenase
LDL= Low Density Lipoprotein
LDL-C= Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
L-DOPA= Levo-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
LE= Lower Extremity
LE= Lupus Erythematosus
LEC= Lupus Erythematosus Cell
LES= Lower Esophageal Sphincter
LES= Lupus Erythematosus Systemicus
Leu= Leukocytes
LFT= Liver Function Test
LGL= Lown-Ganong-Levine Syndrome
LGM= Lymphogranulomatosis Maligna
LGV= Lymphogranuloma Venereum
LH= Luteinizing Hormone
LI= Linear Interpolator
Lig= Ligament
LIH= Last Image Hold
LIH= Left Inguinal Hernia
LLE= Left Lower Extremity
LLL= Left Lower Lobe
LLQ= Left Lower Quadrant
LM= Left Main
LMA= Left Mentoanterior-Fetal Position
LMCA= Left Main Coronary Artery
LMD= Local Medical Doctor
LMP= Last Menstrual Period
LN= Lymph Node
LOA= Left Occipitoanterior
LOC= Level of Consciousness
LOP= Left Occipitoposterior
LORTA= Loss of Resistance To Air
LOS= Length of Stay
Lot= Lotion
Lp= Lipoprotein
LP= Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap)
LPH= Left Posterior Hemiblock
LPL= Lipoprotein Lipase
LPN= Licensed Practical Nurse
LPO= Left Posterior Oblique
LR= Lactated Ringer’s Solution
LRTI= Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
LSB= Left Sternal Border
LSD= Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
LSF= Line Spread Function
LT= Left
LTAC= Long-term Acute Care
LUL= Left Upper Lobe-Lung
LUQ= Left Upper Quadrant
LUT= Look Up Table
LV= Left Ventricle
LVAD= Left Ventricular Assist Device
LVEDP= Left Ventricular End Diastolic Pressure
LVEF= Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction
LVF= Left Ventricular Failure
LVH= Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
LVOT= Left Ventricular Outflow Track
Ly= Lymphocytes
lytes= Electrolytes
M&M= Morbidity & Mortality
M= Murmur (heart murmur)
mA= Milliamperage
MAE= Moves All Extremities
MAL= Midaxillary Line
MAMMO= Mammography, Mammogram
MAO-I= Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor
MAP= Mean Arterial Pressure
MARSA= Methicillin and Aminoglycoside-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
mAs= Milliampere Seconds
MAS= Morgagni-Adams-Stokes Syndrome
MAST= Medical Antishock Trousres
MAT= Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia
MBT= Maternal Blood Type
MC&S= Microscopy, Culture and Sensitivity
MC= Metacarpal Bone
MCH= Mean Cell Hemoglobin
MCH= Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin
MCHC= Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration
MCP= Metacarpophalangeal Joint
MCV= Mean Cell Volume
MDA= Medical Devices Agency
MDCT= Multi-Detector Computed Tomography
MDD= Major Depressive Disorder (Clinical Depression)
MDD= Medical Device Directive
MDE= Major Depressive Episode
MDI= Metered Dose Inhaler
MDS= Myelodysplastic Syndrome
MEDLINE= Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online
MEN= Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
mEq= milliequivalent
MeSH= Medical Subject Headings
MET= Metabolic Equivalent
met= Metastasis
Mg= Magnesium
mg= milligram
MgSO4= Magnesium Sulfate
MGUS= Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance
MI= Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack)
MIC= Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
MICA= Mental Illness and Chemical Abuse
MICU= Mobile Intensive Care Unit
MinIP= Minimum Intensity Projection
MIP= Maximum Inspiratory Pressure
MIP= Maximum Intensity projection
mL= milliliter
MLC= Mixed Lymphocyte Culture
MLE= Midline Episiotomy
MM= Myeloid Metaplasia
MMEF= Maximal Mid Expiratory Flow
mmol= millimole
MMPI= Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
MMR= Measles, Mumps, Rubella
Mo= Molybdenum
Mo= Monocytes
MOD= Magneto-Optical Disc
mod= Moderate
mod= Modified
MODY= Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young
MOM= Milk of Magnesia
Mono= Infectious Mononucleosis (Glandular Fever)
MOPP= Mechlorethamine, Vincristine, Procarbazine and Prednisone
MPD= Myeloproliferative Disease
MPV= Mean Platelet Volume
MR= Mental Retardation
MR= Mitral Regurgitation
MR= Modified Release
MRA= Magnetic Resonance Angiography
MRA= Magnetic Resonance Angiography
MRCP= Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography
MRG= Murmurs, Rubs and Gallops
MRI= Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRS= Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
MRSA= Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
MS= Mental Status
MS= Mitral Stenosis
MS= Multiple Sclerosis
MSAD= Multiple Scan Average Dose
MSCT= Multi-Slice Computed Tomography
MSE= Mental Status Examination
MSH= Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone
MSM= Methylsulfonylmethane
MSO4= Morphine or Morphine Sulfate
MSSA= Methicillin-sensitive Staph aureus
MSU= Midstream Urine Sample
MSUD= Maple Syrup Urine Disease
MT= Metatarsal Bone
MTBI= Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
MTF= Modulation Transfer Function
MTP= Metatarsalphalangeal Joint
MTX= Methotrexate
MVA= Motor Vehicle Accident
MVC= Motor Vehicle Crash
MVI= Multivitamin Injection
MVP= Mitral Valve Prolapse
MVPS= Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome
MVR= Mitral Valve Replacement
MVV= Maximum Voluntary Ventilation
Mz= Magnetization Vector
N&V= Nausea and Vomiting
n.s. = Not Significant
Na= Sodium
NABS= Normoactive Bowel Sounds
NAD= No Abnormality Detected
NAD= No Apparent Distress
NAS= No Added Salt
NB= Newborn
NBN= Newborn Nursery
NC= Nasal Cannula
NC= Nerve Action Potential
NCC= Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy
NCRP= National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurment
NCS= Nerve Conduction Study
NCT= Nerve Conduction Test
NCV= Nerve Conduction Velocity
ND= Not Done
Ne= Neutrophil Granulocytes
NE= Norepinephrine
NEC= Not Elsewhere Classified
NED= No Evidence of Recurrent Disease
Neg= Negative
NEMA= National Equipment Manufacturers Agency
Neo= Neoplasm
NEQ= Noise Equivalent Quanta
NES= Not Elsewhere Specified
NEX= Number of Excitations
NFR= Not for Resuscitation
ng= Nanogram
NG= Nasogastric
NGT= Nasogastric Tube
NGU= Non-Gonococcal Urethritis
NHL= Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
NI= Normal
NICU= Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
NIDDM= Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2 Diabetes)
NK= Natural Killer Cells
NKA= No Known Allergies
NKDA= No Known Drug Allergies
NLP= Neuro-Linguistic Programming
NLP= No Light Perception
NM= Nuclear Medicine
NMR= Nuclear Magnetic Resoance
NNH= Number Needed to Harm
NNT= Number Needed to Treat
No. = Number
NO= Nitric Oxide
NOF= Neck of Femur Fracture
Non rep. = Do not repeat
NOS= Nitric Oxide Synthase
NOS= Not Otherwise Specified
NPH= Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Npl= Neoplasm
NPO= Nil per os
NPTAC= No Previous Tracing Available For Comparison
NRB= Non-Rebreather Mask
NRC= Nuclear Ragulatory Commission
NREM= Non-Rapid Eye Movement
NRM= No Regular Medications
NRPB= National Radiological Protection Board
NS= Normal Saline
NSA= No Significant Abnormality
NSAID= Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug
NSCC= Non-squamous-cell carcinoma
NSD= Normal Spontaneous Delivery (Natural Childbirth)
NSE= Neurospecific Enolase
NSR= Normal Sinus Rhythm
NST= Non-Stress Test
NSTEMI= Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
NSU= Non-Specific Urethritis
NT= Nasotracheal
NT= Not Tested
NTG= Nitroglycerin
NTT= Nasotracheal Tube
NVD= Nausea, Vomiting and Diarrhea
NVD= Normal Vaginal Delivery
NVDC= Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea and Constipation
O&P= Ova and Parasites
O/E= On examination
O2= Oxygen
OA= Osteoarthritis
OB-GYN= Obstetrics and Gynecology
Obl= Oblique
OBL= Oblique
OBS= Organic Brain Syndrome
Occ= Occasional
OCD= Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
OCG= Oral Cholecystogram
OCNA= Old Chart Not Available
OCP= Oral Contraceptive Pill
OCPD= Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder
OCT= Optical Coherence Tomography
od= Everyday
OD= Occupational Disease
OD= Optical Density
OD= Overdose
OD= Right Eye (Latin: Oculus Dexter)
OE= Otitis Externa (Ear Infection)
OGTT= Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
Oint= Ointment
om= Every Morning
OM= Otitis Media (Ear Infection)
OME= Otitis Media with Effusion
on= Every Night
OOB= Out of bed
OPD= Outpatient Department
OPPT= Oriented to Person, Place and Time
OPV= Oral Polio Vaccine
OPV= Outpatient Visit
OR= Operating Room
ORIF= Open Reduction Internal Fixation
ORSA= Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
OS= Left Eye (Ltin-Oculus Sinister)
OS= Orthopedic Surgery
OSA= Obstructive Sleep Apnea
OSH= Outside Hospital
OSHA= Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Osm= Osmolarity
Osteo= Osteomyelitis
OT= Occupational Therapy
OTC= Over-the-counter Drug
OTD= Out the Door
OTPP= Oriented to Time Place and Person
OU= Both eyes (Latin: Oculi Uterque)
oz= Ounce
P&A= Percussion and Auscultation
P&PD= Percussion and Postural Drainage
p.c. = After Food (Latin: Post Cibum)
p.o. = By Mouth
p.r. = Per rectum
p.v. = Per Vagina
P= Phosphorus
P= Post
P= Pulse
PA= Physician Assistant
PA= Posteroanterior
PA= Pulmonary Artery
PAC= Premature Atrial Contraction
PAC= Pulmonary Artery Catheter
PACS= Picture Archive and Communications System
PAD= Peripheral Artery Disease
PAF= Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation
PAF= Platelet Activating Factor
PAI-1= Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
PAL= Posterior Axillary Line
PALS= Pediatric Advanced Life Support
PAN= Polyarthritis Nodosa
PAO= Peak Acid Output
PAO2= Alveolar Oxygen
PaO2= Peropheral Arterial Oxygen Content
PAOD= Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease
PAP= Papanicolaou Stain
Pap= Papanicolaou Test (Pap Smear)
PAP= Positive Airway Pressure
PAP= Pulmonary Artery Pressure
PARA I= Indicating a woman with one child
PAT= Paroxysmal Atrial Trachycardia
Pb= Lead
PBL= Positive Beam Limitation
PCA= Patient Care Report
PCA= Patient-controlled Analgesia
PCa= Prostate Cancer
PCD= Postconcussional Disorder
PCI= Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
PCL= Posterior Cruciate Ligament
PCN= Penicillin
PCNSL= Primary CNS Lymphoma
PCO= Polycystic Ovary
PCOS= Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
PCP= Pneumocystis Pneumonia
PCP= Primary Care Physician
PCR= Polymerase Chain Reaction
PCS= Post-concussion Syndrome
PCV= Packed Cell Volume
PCV= Polycythemia vera

PCWP= Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure
PD= Parkinson’s Disease
PD= Peritoneal Disease
PDA= Patent Ductus Arteriosus
PDD= Pervasive Developmental Disorder
PDE= Phosphodiesterase
PDR= Physician’s Drug Reference
PDT= Photodynamic Therapy
PE= Physical Examination
PE= Pre-eclampsia
PE= Pulmonary Embolism
PEA= Pulseless Electrical Activity
PEEP= Positive End Expiratory Pressure
PEF= Peak Expiratory Flow
PEFR= Peak Expiratory Flow Rate
PEG= Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy
pen= Penicillin
Per Vag= Per Vaginam
PERLA= Pupils Equal and Reactive to Light and Accomodation
PERRL= Pupils Equal, Round, Reactive to Light
PET= Positron-emission Tomography
PFO= Patent Foramen Ovale
PFT= Pulmonary Function Test
pg= Picogram
PGCS= Paediatric Glasgow Coma Scale
pH= Hydrogen Ion Concentration
PH= Pulmonary Hypertension
Ph1= Philadelphia Chromosome
PHTLS= Prehospital Trauma Life Support
PHx= Past History (medical)
PI= Present Illness
PI= Pulmonic Insufficiency Disease
PICC= Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter
PID= Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
PID= Prolapsed Intervertibral Disc
PIH= Pregnancy Induced Hypertension
PIP= Proximal Interphalangeal Joint
PK= Pyruvate Kinase
PKA= Protein Kinase A
PKD= Polycystic Kidney Disease
PKU= Phenylketonuria
PLAT= Tissue Plasminogen Activator
PLT= Platelets
PM&R= Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
PMB= Post-Menopausal Bleeding
PMH= Past Medical History
PMH= Perimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
PMI= Point of Maximal Impulse
PMN= Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes
PMR= Percutaneous Myocardial Revascularisation
PMR= Polymyalgia Rheumatica
PMS= Premenstrual Syndrome
PMT= Photomultiplier Tube
PND= Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea
PNM= Perinatal Mortality
POD= Postoperative Days
POEMS= Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, Monoclonal Protein, Skin Changes
poly= Polymorphonuclear Cells
POSL= Pulse Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeter
Post= Posterior
POX= Peroxidase
PP= Post-partum
PP= Postprandial or Pulsus Paradoxus or Pulse Pressure
PPCS= Prolonged Post-Concussion Syndrome
PPD= (Cigarette) Packs Per Day
PPD= Postpartum Depression
PPD= Purified Protein Derivative or Mantoux Test
PPH= Postpartum Hemorrhage
PPH= Primary Pulmonary Hypertension
PPH= Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids
PPI= Proton Pump Inhibitor
PPROM= Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes
PPS= Pulses Per Second
Ppt= Precipitate
PPTCT= (HIV) Prevention of Parent To Child Transmission
PPTL= Post-Partum Tubal Ligation
PR= Prothrombin Ratio
PRA= Plasma Renin Activity
PRBC= Packed Red Blood Cells
Preme= Premature Baby
Prep= Preparation
PRE-SAT= Presaturation
PRIND= Prolonged Reversible Ischemic Neurologic Deficit
PRL= Prolactin
PRN= As Necessary
Prog= Prognosis
PROM= Premature Rupture of Membranes
PRP= PanRetinal Photocoagulation
PRV= Polycythemia rubra vera
PS= Pulmonic Stenosis
PSA= Prostate Specific Antigen
PSF= Point Spread Function
PSH= Pscychosocial History
PSP= Phenylsulphtalein
PSP= Photostimulable Phosphor
PSS= Progressive Systemic Sclerosis
PSV= Pressure Supported Ventilation
Pt= Patient
PT= Physical Therapy
PT= Prothrombin Time
PTA= Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty
PTA= Peritonsillar Abscess
PTA= Post-traumatic Amnesia
PTA= Prior to admission
PTB= Pulmonary Tuberculosis
PTC= Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography
PTCA= Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty
PTCA= Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty
PTD= Prior to Discharge
PTH= Parathyroid Hormone
PTHC= Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography
PTSD= Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
PTSS= Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome
PTT= Partial Thromboplastin Time
PTU= Propylthioluracil
PTx= Pneumothorax
PUD= Peptic Ulcer Disease
PUO= Pyrexia of Unknown Origin
PUVA= Psoralen UV A
PVC= Premature Ventricular Contraction
PVD= Peripheral Vascular Disease
PVFS= Post-viral Fatigue Syndrome
PVR= Pulmonary Vascular Resistance
PVS= Persistent Vegetative State
PVS= Pulmonary Valve Stenosis
PWP= Pulmonary Wedge Pressure
Px= Physical Examination
Px= Prognosis
P-Y= Pack-years
q.a.d. = Every Other Day (Latin: Quaque Altera Die)
q.AM= Every morning
q.d. = Each Day
q.d.s. = Four Times Each Day
q.h. = Each Hour
q.h.s. = Every bedtime
q.I. = As much as you like
q.i.d. = Four Times Each Day
q.m.t. = Every Month
q.n. = Every Night
q.o.d. = Every Other Day
q.o.h. = Every other hour
q.s. = AS much as suffices
q.w.k. = Weekly
q= Each, every (Latin: Quaque)
q4h, q6h= Every 4 hours, every 6 hours
QA= Quality Assurance
QALY= Quality-adjusted Life Years
QC= Quality Control
QNS= Quantity Not Sufficient
QOF= Quality and Outcomes Framework
Qs/Qt= Shunt Fraction
qt= Quart
Qt= Total Cardiac Output
R&F= Radiography and Fluoroscopy
r/g/m= rubs/gallops/murmurs
R/O= Rule Out
RA= Refractory Anemia
RA= Rheumatoid Arthritis
RA= Right Atrium
Rad hys= Radical Hysterectomy
rad= Radian
RAD= Radiation Absorbed Dose
RAD= Reactive Attachment Disorder
RAD= Reflex Anal Dilatation
RAD= Right Axis Deviation
RAE= Right Atrial Enlargement
RAI= Radioactive Iodine
RAM= Random Access Memory
RAO= Right Anterior Oblique
RAP= Right Atrial Pressure
RAPD= Relative Afferent Pupilary Defect
RBBB= Right Bundle Branch Block
RBC= Red Blood Cells
RBC= Red Blood Count
RBP= Retino-binding Protein
RCA= Right Coronary Artery
RCM= Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
RCM= Right Costal Margin
RCT= Randomized Controlled Trial
RD= Retinal Detachment
RDA= Recommended Daily Allowance
RDS= Respiratory Distress Syndrome
RDW= Red Cell Distribution Width
RELP= Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
REM= Radiation Equivalent Man
REM= Rapid Eye Movement
RES= Reticuloendothelial System
RF= Rheumatic Fever
RF= Rheumatoid Factor
RFLP= Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
RFOV= Reconstruction Field Of View
RFT= Renal Function Test
Rh= Rhesus factor
Rh= Rhodium
RHD= Rheumatoid Heart Disease
RhF= Rheumatoid Factor
RIA= Radioimmunoassay
RIBA= Radioimmunoblotting Assay
RICE= Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation
RIH= Right Inguinal Hernia
RIMA= Reversible Inhibitor of Monoamine Oxidase A
RIND= Reversible Ischemic Neurologic Deficit
RIS= Radiology Information System
RL= Ringer’s Lactate
RLE= Right Lower Extremity
RLL= Right Lower Lobe-lung
RLN= Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
RLN= Regional Lymph Node
RLQ= Right Lower Quadrant
RLS= Restless Legs Syndrome
RML= Right Middle Lobe-lung
RNA= Ribonucleioc Acid
RNV= Radionuclear Ventriculography
ROA= Right Occipital Anterior
ROI= Region Of Interest
ROM= Range of Motion
ROP= Right Occipital Posterior
ROS= Review of Systems
ROSC= Return of Spontaneous Circulation
RPG= Retrograde Pyelogram
RPO= Right Posterior Oblique
RPR= Rapid Plasma Reagin Test
RQ= Respiratory Quotient
RR= Respiratory Rate
RRR= Regular Rate and Rhythm
RSI= Rapid Sequence Induction
RSNA= Radiological Society of North America
RSV= Respiratory Syncytial Virus
RT= Respiratory Therapy
RT= Right, Registered Technologist
RTA= Renal Tubal Acidosis
RTC= Return to Clinic
RTS= Revised Trauma Source
RU= Resin Uptake
RUE= Right Upper Extremity
RUG= Retrograde Urethogram
RUL= Right Upper Lobe – lung
RUQ= Right Upper Quadrant
RV= Residual Volume
RV= Right Ventricle
RVAD= Right Ventricular Assist Device
RVF= Right Ventricular Failure
RVH= Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
RVSP= Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure
RVT= Renal Vein Thrombosis
Rx= Prescription Drug or medical treatment
S&E= Sugar and Acetone
s.c. = Subcutaneous
s.d. = Subdermal
S= Sacrum
S1= First Heart Sound
S2= Second Heart Sound
SA= Sinoatrial Node
SAA= Syntheric Amino Acid
SAB= Spontaneous Abortion (Miscarriage)
SAB= Staphylococcal Bacteremia
SAH= Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
SAN= Sinoatrial Node
SaO2= Oxygen Saturation of Artial Blood
SAPS II= Simplified Acute Physiology Score
SAPS III= Simplified Acute Physiology Score
SARS= Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Sat= Saturation
SB= Small Bowel
SBE= Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
SBFT= Small Bowel Follow Through
SBO= Small Bowel Obstruction
SBP= Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis
SBP= Systolic Blood Pressure
SBS= Short Bowel Syndrome
SCAR= Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
SCC= Squamous Cell Carcinoma
SCID= Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
Scope= Microscope or Endoscope
SCP= Service Class Provider
SCr= Serum Creatinine
SCR= Silicon Controlled Rectifier
SCU= Service Class User
SD= Standard Deviation
SDH= Subdermal Hematoma
SE= Spin Echo
Sed= Sedimentation
Segs= Segmented Cells
SEM= Systolic Ejection Murmur
SFA= Serum Folic Acid
SFA= Superficial Femoral Artery
SFOV= Scan Field Of View
SG cath= Swan-Ganz Catheter
SGA= Small for Gestational Age
SGGT= Serum Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase
SGOT= Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase
SGPT= Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase
SHBG= Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin
SHx= Social history
SHx= Surgical History
SI= International System of Units
SI= Sacroiliacal (SI Joint)
SI= Seriously Ill
SI= Suicidal Ideation
SIADH= Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone
SICU= Surgical Intensive Care Unit
SID= Source to Image Distance
SIDS= Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
sig= Write on label
SIMV= Synchronized Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation
SIT= Stress Inoculation Training
SK= Streptokinase
sl= Sublingual
SLE= Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
SLR= Straight Leg Raise
SM= Multiple Sclerosis
SMA= Sequential Multiple Analysis
SMA= Spinal Muscular Atrophy
SMA= Superior Mesenteric Artery
SMA-6= Six-channel Serum Multiple Analysis
SMA-7= Serum Metabolic Assay
SMO= Slips made out
SMS= Senior Medical Student
SMT= Spinal Manipulative Therapy
SMV= Superior Mesenteric Vein
SN= Student Nurse
SNB= Sentinel Node Biopsy
SNP= Sodium Nitroprusside
SNR= Signal to Noise Ratio
SNRI= Serotonin-norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor
SOAP= Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan
SOB= Shortness of Breath (Dyspnea)
SOBOE= Short of Breath On Exercise
Sol= Solution
SOL= Space Occupying Lesion
SONO= Sonogram, Sonography
SOOB= Send Out of bed
SOS= Save Our Souls
Sp. Fl. = Spinal Fluid
Sp. Gr. = Specific Gravity
SP= Status Post
Spec= Specimen
SPECT= Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography
SPEP= Single Protein Electrophoresis
SPET= Single Photon Emission Tomography
SPR= Scan Projection Radiograph
Sq= Subcutaneous
SR= Slow Release
SROM= Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes
SS= Sickle-cell disease (anemia)
SSD= Surface Shaded Display
SSRI= Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor
SSS= Sick Sinus Syndrome
SSSS= Staphylococcal Sclaed Skin Syndrome
Staph= Staphylococcus
STAT= Immediately
STD= Sexually Transmitted Disease
STEMI= ST Elevation MI (Myocardial Infarction)
STH= Somatotropic Hormone
STI= Sexually Transmitted Infection
STI= Soft Tissue Injury
STNR= Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex
STOP= Surgical Termination of Pregnancy
Strep= Streptococcus
STS= Serological Test for Syphilis
Subq= Subcutaneous
Supp= Suppository
Sv= Seivert
SV= Seminal Vesicle
SV= Stroke Volume
SVD= Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery
SVI= Systemic Viral Infection
SVN= Small Volume Nebulizer
SVR= Systemic Vascular Resistance
SVT= Supraventricular Tachycardia
Sx= Surgery
Sx= Symptoms
SXA= Single Energy X-ray Absorptiometer
SXR= Skull X-ray
Sz= Seizure
T&A= Tonsillectomy with Adenoidectomy
T&C= Type and cross-match (Blood Transfusion)
T&H= Type and Hold
t.d.s. = Three Times a day
t.i.d. = Three times a day
T.S.T.H. = Too sick to send home
T= Tesla
T= Thoracic Vertebrae
Tab= Tablet
TAB= Therapeutic Abortion
TAH= Total Abdominal Hysterectomy
TB, TBC= Tuberculosis
TBC= Total Body Crunch
TBG= Total Binding Globulin
TBI= Total Body Irradiation
TBI= Traumatic Brain Injury
TBLC= Term Birth Living Child
TC= Traffic Crash
TCC= Transitional Cell Carcinoma
TCDD= Threshold Contrast Detail Detectability
TCN= Tetracycline
TCT= Thrombin Clotting Time
Td= Tetanus and Diphtheria
TDI= Time Delay Integration
TdP= Torsades de pointes
TE= Echo Time
TEB= Thoracic Electrical Bioimpedance
TEE= Transesophageal Echocardiogram
TEM= Transmission Electron Microscopy
Temp= Temperature
TENS= Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator
TERN= Intern
TF, T/F= Transfer
TFT= Thin Film Transistor
TFTs= Thyroid Function Tests
Tg= Thyroglobulin
TG= Triglycerides
TGA= Transposition of the Great Arteries
THR= Total Hip Replacement
TI= Inversion Time
TIA= Transient Ischemic Attack
TIBC= Total Iron Binding Capacity
Tib-Fib= Tibia and Fibula
TIG= Tetanus Immune Globulin
TIPS= Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt
TKR= Total Knee Replacement
TKVO= To Keep Vein Open
TLC= Tender Loving Care
TLC= Total Leucocyte Count
TLC= Total Lung Capacity
TLD= Thermoluminescent Dosimeter
TLR= Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex
TM= Transcendental Meditation
TM= Tympanic Membrane
TMB= Too Many Birthdays
TME= Total Mesorectal Excision
TMJ= Temporomandibular Joint
TNF= Tumor Necrosis Factors
TNG= Trinitroglycerin
TNM= Tumor-Nodes-Metastases
TNTC= Too numerous to count
TO= Telephone Order
TOA= Tuboovarian Abscess
TOD= Transoesophageal Doppler
TOE= Transoesophageal Echocardiogram
TOF= Time of Flight
TOMO= Tomography, Tomogram
TOP= Termination Of Pregnancy (Abortion)
TOPV= Trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine
TP= Totyal Protein
TPa= Tissue Plasminogen Activator
TPN= Total Parenteral Nutrition
TPR= Temperature, Pulse, Respiration
TR= Repetition Time
Tr= Tincture
TR= Tricuspid Regurgitation
TRAM= Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap
TRF= Transfer
TRF’d= Transferred
TRH= Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone
TS= Tricuspid Stenosis
TSH= Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Tsp= Teaspoon
TT= Thrombin Time
TTE= Transthoracic Echocardiogram
TTO= To Take Out
TTP= Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
TTR= Transthyretin
TTS= Transdermal Therapeutic System
TTTS= Twin To Twin Transfusion Syndrome
Tu= Tumor
TUR= Transurethral Resection
TURBT= Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor
TURP= Transurethral Resection of Prostate
TV= Tridal Volume
TVH= Total Vagina Hysterectomy
tw= Twice a week
Tx= Traction
Tx= Transplatation (Organ Transplant)
Tx= Treatment
U&E= Urea and Electrolytes
UA= Urinanalysis
UAC= Umbilical Artery Catheter
UAC= Uric Acid
UAO= Upper Airway Obstruction
UBD= Universal Blood Donor
UBT= Urea Breath Test
UC= Ulcerative Colitis
UC= Umbilical Cord
UCHD= Usual Childhood Disease
UD= As directed
UDS= Urine Drug Screening
UE= Upper Extremity
UFH= Unfractionated Heparin
UGI= Upper Gastrointesinal
UGI= Upper Gastrointestinal Series
Ung= Ointment
Unk= Unknown
UOP= Urinary Output
UPJ= Ureteropelvic Junction
URI= Upper Respiratory Infection
URQ= Upper Respiratory Quadrant
URTI= Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
US= Ultrasond, Ultrasonography
US= Ultrasonogram
USG= Ultrasonography (Prenatal Ultrasound Imaging)
USP= United States Pharmacopeia
USR= Unheated Serum Reagin
USS= Ultrasound Scan
UTI= Urinary Tract Infection
UUN= Urinary Urea Nitrogen
UVAL= Ultraviolet Argon Laser
V/Q= Ventilation/perfusion Scan
VA= Visual Acuity
VAD= Venous Access Device
VAD= Ventricular Assist Device
VAD= Vincristine Adriblastine Dexamethasone
Vag= Vaginal
VAMP= Vincristine Adriblastine Methylprednisone
VBAC= Vaginal Birth After Caesarean
VC= Vital Capacity
vCJD= Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
VCT= Venous Clotting Time
VCTC= Voluntary Counselling and Testing Centers
VCUG= Voiding Cysourethrogram
VD= Vaginal Delivery
VD= Venereal Disease
VD= Volume of Distribution
VDRF= Ventilator Dependent Respiratory Failure
VDRL= Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory
VE= Vaginal Examination
VEB= Ventricular Ectopic Beat
VF or V-fib= Ventricular Fibrillation
VIP= Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
VLDL= Very Low Density Lipoprotein
VMA= Vanillylmandelic Acid
VMA= Violent Mechanical Asphyxia
VNPI= VanNuys Prognostic Scoring Index (Ductal Carcinoma)
VO= Verbal Order
VOD= Volume of Distribution
VPA= Valproic Acid
VPAP= Variable Positive Airway Pressure
VPB= Ventricular Premature Beats
VPC= Ventricular Premature Contraction
VR= Volume Rendered, Volume Rendering
VRE= Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus
VRSA= Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
VS= Vital Signs
VSD= Ventricular Septal Defect
VSR= Ventricular Septal Rupture
VSS= Vital Signs Stable
VT= Ventricular tachycardia
VTE= Venous THromboembolism
VV= Varicose Veins
VW= Vessel Wall
VWD= Von Willebrand’s Disease
VZV= Varicella Zoster Virus
W/= With
W/C= Wheelchair
w/o= without
W/U= Workup
W= Tungsten
WAP= Wandering Atrial Pacemaker
WAT= white adipose tissue
WB= Whole Blood
WBC= White Blood Cell, White Blood Cell Count
WBR= whole body radiation
WC= white cells
WD= well developed
WDL= within defined limits
WDWN= well developed and well nourished
WF= white female
WH= Well Hydrated (no Dehydration nor Water Intoxication)
WIA= wounded in action
WIP= Work In Progress
WN= well nourished
WNL= within normal limits
WO= written order, weeks old, wide open.
WOP= without pain
WPW= Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
WS= Waardenburg syndrome
WS= water-soluble
WS= Werner syndrome
WS= West syndrome
WS= Williams Syndrome
WS= Wolfram syndrome
wt= Weight
W-T-D= wet to dry
WWI= walking while intoxicated
X2d= Times 2 days
XL= Extended Release
XL= Extra Large
XM= Crossmatch
XMM= Xeromammography
XOM= Extraocular Movements
XR= Extended Release
XR= X-ray Radiography
XRT= X-ray Threapy
XS= Excessive
XULN= Times Upper Limit of Normal
YF= Yellow Fever
YLC= Youngest Living Child
YO/yo= Years Old
YOB= Year of Birth
ytd= Year to Date
ZD= Zinc Deficiency
ZDV= Zidovudine
ZE= Zollinger-Ellison
Z-ESR= Zeta Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
ZIFT= Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer
Zn= Zinc
ZnO= Zinc Oxide
ZSB= Zero Stools Since Birth

Dr. A.H. Serda

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